FLeD Patterns and Scaffolding

by | Feb 27, 2024

The FLeD project aims to enhance the creation of effective flexible learning scenarios for faculty by providing guidance on implementing the flipped learning (FL) method. In its first year, the consortium has established a solid pedagogical foundation in WP2 (Pedagogical design), which includes a conceptual framework for flexible education and an Inclusive FL Handbook. Moreover, a variety of resources have been developed to support university teachers in designing learning experiences, such as four learning design patterns and support for self-regulated, technology-mediated, and inclusive FL. These resources are openly accessible, along with a tool to assist teachers in effectively utilizing them.

In this blogpost we want to focus on these scaffolding resources generated:

Learning design patterns

A pattern is a reusable resource for addressing common challenges and offering practical solutions. It doesn’t create a teaching plan but provides guidance for reflecting on and enhancing learning design. By using patterns, our goal is to enhance the effectiveness of implementing the flipped classroom method. We believe this effectiveness is linked to the support provided in relation to five core components:

  • Flexibility: This pertains to the ability of the educational design to tailor teaching and learning to meet the needs of participants. The pattern should provide guidance on fostering flexibility in teaching and learning, taking into account both physical and virtual environments.
  • Inclusion: This ensures equal opportunities for all students to learn. The pattern should help address the needs of students with special educational needs and marginalized groups, with a focus on promoting gender equality.
  • Collaboration: This emphasizes collaborative learning processes and the importance of negotiating and building knowledge towards a shared goal, whether in-person or supported by technology.
  • Self-regulation: This supports actively regulating and monitoring learning by employing strategies to analyze tasks, monitor progress, and evaluate performance.
  • Digital mediation: This supports exploring various digital learning opportunities. Technology-enhanced learning enables teachers to utilize digital tools as instructional aids, as part of the learning environment, or as a means to enhance and expand learning. The patterns should encompass all modes of teaching delivery (in-person, fully online, blended) and digital support.

The initial learning design pattern created focuses on establishing an effective flipped classroom, while the remaining three patterns explore key aspects of implementing flipped learning. These aspects encompass preparing students in advance, offering constructive feedback, and fostering co-regulation within teamwork. To support student autonomy, we examined self-regulation strategies to empower learners to guide their learning experiences. Additionally, we addressed the integration of digital technologies and inclusivity to ensure no student is left behind. Lastly, we developed an engaging and interactive training proposal to provide educators with essential tools and insights.

All patterns were discussed within the consortium, underwent expert validation, and refinement, and were openly shared through a public repository. Currently, these patterns are undergoing testing by around 50 teachers across various disciplines and educational levels. Below are the links to access the patterns:

Scaffolding system

In the education sector, scaffolding involves teachers providing support to help students improve their understanding and skills beyond what they could achieve on their own. This support is provided temporarily and it is gradually reduced as students become more independent (Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976).

In essence, scaffolding serves as guidelines linked to the pattern to assist teachers in decision-making. Within the FLeD project, scaffolding is viewed from two perspectives. Firstly, there is the scaffolding system integrated into the tool to maximize its benefits for FLeD users. The primary users of the FLeD Tool—mainly teachers—will receive support from this system. Secondly, there is a secondary level of scaffolding, which involves training teachers on how to utilize scaffolding and implement it within FLeD. This meta-scaffolding focuses not on the teachers (the tool’s users) but on their students.

The guidelines developed for the FLeD project offer recommendations regarding the use of digital tools based on the mode of teaching delivery (in-person, blended, or online), the level of learning regulation (lack of regulation, external regulation, or self-regulation), and inclusivity (special needs or disadvantaged students). The set of guidelines has been thoroughly discussed within the consortium, validated by experts, and is openly accessible through this link:

Link:  : https://www.researchgate.net/publication/378067716_Scaffolding_in_Flexible_Learning_Environments_Public_Guidelines_and_Actions_v_11

These resources provide valuable guidelines for educators to enhance instructional design and ensure inclusive, regulated and digitally supported learning scenarios. Looking ahead, we anticipate these resources to continue to be tested, implemented, and enriched through the contributions of teachers and experts, thereby promoting more effective and inclusive learning for all students.


Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17(2), 89-100.